Combined treatment of T. angustifolia and P. scrobiculatum was found to be more effective for treatment of textile dyes and real industrial effluent than individual plants.
Textile dye processing industries use a huge number of various classes of coloring agents, such as direct, reactive, sulfide, acid and cationic dyes, which are later found in the released effluents.
Pollution caused by textile industries is the result of discharge of these dyes and other processing chemicals into the environment. Because of the presence of complex mixture of dyes, acids, bases, fasteners etc., textile effluents generally have high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved solids, suspended solids and other toxic heavy metals. Allergic reactions, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and acute cytotoxicity of textile dyes on crop plants, fishes, molluscs, rats, microbes and cultured mammalian cells are well documented evidences of dye toxicities. Treatment of dye containing industrial wastewater is therefore highly desirable before their discharge into the naturally occurring water bodies.
Phytoremediation process possesses adsorption, accumulation, degradation and biotransformation of pollutant by the action of enzymes or metabolism of plants. The plant induced peroxidase and laccase have potential to decolorize and degrade various pollutants. Significant induction in specific activities of oxido-reductive enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (193%), veratryl alcohol oxidase (823%), laccase (492%) and azoreductase (248%) was observed in root tissues of T. angustifolia.
Co-plantation of T. angustifolia and P. scrobiculatum in a drench was found to achieve more efficient treatment than the drenches with individual species. Use of aquatic macrophytes and their co-plantation could be a wise strategy for future wastewater clean-up programs. This work is performed by Prof Sanjay Govindwar of Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India at HRTS of 5 star MIDC, Kagal, India.